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The Mass Rapid Transit Corporation tendered for their first passenger rolling stock in 1984, with final cost of 581.5 Million Singapore Dollars awarded on 12th April 1984 to Kawasaki Heavy Industries Ltd/Kawasaki Heavy Industries Rolling Stock Company (川崎重工・川崎重工業車両カンパニー)(Kobe, Hyogo Prefecture).

☆Basic

Many of these design specifications were carried on to the subsequent rolling stocks that MRTC/LTA tendered. Hence it is logical to say that Contract 151 sets most of the specifications for the mainline rolling stock.

Train Design
The basic design of the rolling stock were 3-car permanently coupled (separated only in repair yard) units, two such 3-car units were then coupled using automatic couplers to form a 6-car train for service. The design is out of ‘consideration of equalising maintenance down-time’
The car-body is manufactured from welded aluminum, each car can carry 320 passengers (1920 passenger per train) and have a maximum axle load of 15 tonnes.
Although Kawasaki Heavy Industries Ltd/Kawasaki Heavy Industries Rolling Stock Company (川崎重工・川崎重工業車両カンパニー) was awarded the tender, the manufacturing of the trains were divided to include three other manufacturers in Japan, Kinki Sharyo Co., Ltd (近畿車輛)(East Osaka, Osaka Prefecture), Nippon Sharyo, Ltd (日本車輌)(Nagoya, Aichi Prefecture) and Tokyu Car Corporation (東急車輛)(Kanazawa, Kanagawa Prefecture). Design is uniform through all manufacturers.

Running Equipment
Each motor car bogie (supplied by Siemens) is constructed using H frame steel plated and carry two DC motors connected to the gearbox using WN (Westinghouse-Natal) couplings, known as the WN Drive. The axlebox primary suspension consists of bonded rubber/steel chevron springs, secondary suspension single convolution air springs. This forms a bolsterless bogie construction. Electric current collectors are located on the bogie frame, with one unit on each side. Single pusher tread brake units are provided at each wheel.
The brake system consists of an electro-pneumatic friction service brake, electric regenerative and rheostatic service brake, pneumatic friction emergency brake and automatic, spring-applied-air-released parking brake.
Static Inverters are mounted on all motor cars, providing 110 VDC and 240 VAC 50 Hz converted from the 750 VDC supply. Two independent split type air-conditioning unit provide each car with 66500 kcal/h (approx 77 kW) cooling power. Evaporator fans mounted on each side of the car can be operated on battery power with the failure of the 750 VDC supply to provide emergency ventilation.

Running Equipment Special Mention; The Electric Chopper
The Electric Chopper was first developed in Japan in the late 1950s to combat heat and electricity consumption problems, particularly important to subway systems. Imagine the heat rising from the trains as they slow, stop and move off in the station would be enough to discourage the commuter from taking the railway again!

Chopper technology first came about with the Cam Chopper, using a combined cam and resistor system to control electric current, varying it at speeds. Heat emitted from resistor units is pretty high, resulting in fire and safety problems, especially with underground subway systems.

The first subway train to be fitted with an Electric Chopper system is the 営団 (Eidan, currently Tokyo Metro) Series 6000, first introduced in 1968, with the concept of ‘Over 40-year usage, new technology, ease of maintenance and lightweight bodywork’. The concept came true, as the series still consists as the main fleet of Chiyoda Line in 2010, with several trains exported to Jakarta recently in 2011 as part of the fleet renewal project. 36 trains, 353 cars were made in total, opening a new page of technology for Electric Multiple Unit (EMU) type stocks.

Electric Chopper technology consists of fast, variable current control thyristors, later semiconductors, alternating the electric current between ‘ON’ and ‘OFF’, to achieve an almost constant smooth supply to motors yet reduce wastage. The main benefit of the Electric Chopper is regenerative braking, the ability to change the motor into a generator and provide electricity back into the supply grid with kinetic braking effect as the primary result.

An important aspect to note about regenerative braking is, without a nearby source absorbing and using the regenerated electricity, it will go off wasted. Regeneration raises line voltage, and with no nearby sources, such as an accelerating train, the line voltage will continue to rise, leading to damage of components. To prevent this, a bank of resistors (echoing the days of resistor control mentioned earlier!) helps to burn off the excessive energy, yet maintaining electric braking effect. For the MRTC system, the rheostatic chopper is set to start operating when the filter capacitor voltage rises above 830 VDC, increasing the current supplied to the resistors (known as the brake resistor/ブレーキ抵抗器) until a maximum of 880 VDC. For line voltage, the operation is coordinated with the output of power supply substations; 750 VDC for stations without load, and 785 VDC for regenerative operation of substation inverters. It must be noted that the power supply network of MRTC NSEWL is fitted extensively with inverters to absorb the regenerated energy if not used by accelerating trains, hence trains on the network rarely suffer from regenerative loss/回生失効, especially later VVVF Inverter trains which do not have brake resistor units.

Japan National Railways (JNR) did not lose out to the private rails; they too came up with the first Thyristor Chopper in 1979, using a Gate Turn-Off thyristor as the main controller, and dubbed as the ‘省エネ電車’, Energy Saving Train. JNR did not last more than 10 years after its introduction, but the trains did, and the last Chuo Line units were withdrawn in 2010. Examples in Kinki Region with JR West, are still running till this date.

Development of the Electric Chopper came to a climax in the early 1980s, when the 4-Quadrant GTO Chopper was introduced on the Eidan Ginza Line Series 01. The 4-Quadrant stand for the four modes the controller works on, forward mode forward motion, forward mode reverse motion and similar of the backward mode. This eliminated much communicators and complex electronic switches used on the older circuits, and the simplified controller unit not only reduced in size but also weight, making the train even more energy saving. The pinnacle of the development of Electric Chopper also meant its demise; the VVVF Inverter developed with AC motors spelt an end to DC motors which generally needed a large initial current draw. AC motors consumed much less power, and VVVF Inverter units were even more energy saving in its control methods. Although limited Cam Chopper and Electric Chopper units are still produced today, operators have looked towards the VVVF Inverter, AC motors and recently, Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors (PMSM) as the primary propulsion system. Humans are indeed unsatisfied with present technology, and that is what drives new inventions and changes to our lifestyle.

The Electric Chopper units mounted on the Contract 151 are 2-phrase 4Q-GTO Thyristor Choppers, with 4500 kVA capacity each for armature and brake choppers. Field chopper is rated 1500 kVA. Three subway rolling stocks in Japan, the Eidan Series 01 (Ginza Line), 03 (Hibiya Line) and 05 (Tozai Line) have similar equipment to the 151, however the programming for the Singapore and Japan units are different.

Doors
Passenger doors are fitted four per-side-per-car (eight per car). Doors are out-hanging type with general mechanism simplicity in mind and avoid complication of car-body design.
Emergency doors are provided at each end of the train, with the capacity to allow 1500 passengers to leave the train in 30 minutes.

Into Service

Introduction
The trainset 003F was used in the launch of the trains in 1987. Subsequently all 66 trains were delivered by 1990.

Major Accident
051F and 121F were involved in a head-to-rear collision at Clementi station during morning peak hours on 5th August 1993, causing injuries but no major damage/casualties. Residue oil on the tracks caused the following train to lose adhesion and collide at low speed onto the train stopped in the station, which had its safety system triggered due to the depletion of compressor air while attempting to stop previously. Human error and untimely response was blamed for the oil leak from a works train the previous night. The two trains were returned to service later.

Refurbishment
A consortium of companies headed by Hyundai Rotem won the 142.7 Million Singapore Dollars project to refurbish the 17-year old trains in 2004. Seats were configured to be larger, but reduced from 9 to 7 per row. Panels were replaced and flooring changed. The first refurbished train entered service in 2006. As at 2011 all trains are refurbished.

Main Specifications

Type: 4M2T, 6-car train Commuter Metro train formed by two 3-car EMU.

Train formation: DT-M1-M2+M2-M1-DT
DT: Driving Trailer, 1st or 6th car
M1: Motor Car 1, 2nd or 5th car
M2: Motor Car 2, 3rd or 4th car

Length: 23650 mm (DT), 22800 mm (M1, M2)
Width: 3200 mm (All)
Height: 3690 mm (All)

Weight: 32.2 tonnes (DT), 38.3 tonnes (M1), 38.4 tonnes (M2)

Train weight
AW0: 217.8 tonnes
AW3 Full load: 286.2 tonnes
AW4 Crush load: 303.3 tonnes

Performance
Initial Acceleration Rate: 3.6 km/h/s (1.0 m/s)
Deceleration Rates
Service: 3.6 km/h/s (1.0 m/s), pure electric, combined electric-pneumatic, pure pneumatic based on conditions.
Emergency: 4.7 km/h/s (1.3 m/s), pure pneumatic friction system.
Service speed: 80 km/h
Design speed: 90 km/h

Running Equipment:
Motor: DC Shunt Wound, 145 kW, 375 V, 430 A, 2050 RPM (1-hour rating)
Gear ratio: 92:14 (6.57:1)
Drive Connection: Westinghouse-Natal Drive
Bogie: H-frame Bolsterless
Control System: 4Q-GTO Electric Chopper (2-phrase 4-quadrant chopper control)

Bogie:
Make: Siemens
Model: SF 2100
Running speed: 80 km/h
Axle load: 16 tons
Continuous power per wheelset: 140/190 kW (applicable to Siemens AC Motors)
Wheelbase: 2500 mm
Wheel diameter (new/worn): 850/775 mm
Weight (M/T): 7.2/5.2 tons
Bogie Height: 894 mm

Seating:
Pre-refurbishment: 62 seats per car
Post-refurbishment:
DT, M1: 50 seats per car
M2: 48 seats per car

6-car Train Formation Numbers by Manufacturer

川崎重工・川崎重工業車両カンパニー: 001F to 019F, 051F to 061F, 093F to 101F, 21 trains
近畿車輛: 021F to 029F, 063F to 071F, 103F to 111F, 15 trains
日本車輌: 031F to 039F, 073F to 081F, 113F to 121F, 15 trains
東急車輌: 041F to 049F, 083F to 091F, 123F to 131F, 15 trains

Introduction to the Formation System

The Site Admin uses the Formation system derived from Japan and customized for local use. Each formation number is taken from the last three digits of the trainset, odd number. For example, 033F will consist of a train
3033-1033-2033+2034-1034-3034.
This is to simplify the denotation of trainsets.

For cases of cross-coupling when a 3-car train is needed for repairs, the formation number will be lengthened to identify the individual 3-car train involved. For example, 033+132F will mean
3033-1033-2033+2132-1132-3132 .

☆Beyond the Electric Chopper: Propulsion Change-out for the C151☆

The propulsion system on the C151 are facing problems associated with aging. DC motors are also increasingly phrased out by operators throughout the world, leading to fewer supplies by manufacturers and difficulty to source for parts. On 4th July 2013, it was announced on the Toshiba Corporation website that they were awarded a propulsion change-out program by SMRT Corporation comprising of PMSMs, VVVF Inverters and associated equipment for 396 cars of the C151 fleet. The introduction date was slated to be early 2015 for a total of twelve cars (Four 3-car EMUs), after which a trial period of 1 to 2 years would commence before all cars are replaced with the new equipment.

The first four 3-car EMUs, 055F and 131F comprising of twelve cars in total commenced revenue service in 2015 on the North-South and East-West Lines.

Additional Photos


Refurbished Stock Cabwall.


Unrefurbished Stock Cabwall.


Refurbished Stock Builder Plate.


Refurbished Stock Modification Plate.

☆Formation Table☆

Formation Driving Trailer
(DT)
Motor Car 1
(M1)
Motor Car 2
(M2)
+ Motor Car 2
(M2)
Motor Car 1
(M1)
Driving Trailer
(DT)
Additional Remarks
Equipment CP, AC CHOP, SIV, BT, AC CHOP, SIV, BT, AC CHOP, SIV, BT, AC CHOP, SIV, BT, AC CP, AC
Tare Weight 32.2t 38.3t 38.4t 38.4t 38.3t 32.2t
001F 3001 1001 2001 2002 1002 3002 1986 川崎重工
003F 3003 1003 2003 2004 1004 3004 1986 川崎重工
8th July 1986 Commemoration of The Delivery of The First MRT Trains
005F 3005 1005 2005 2006 1006 3006 1986 川崎重工
007F 3007 1007 2007 2008 1008 3008 1986 川崎重工
009F 3009 1009 2009 2010 1010 3010 1987 川崎重工
011F 3011 1011 2011 2012 1012 3012 1987 川崎重工
013F 3013 1013 2013 2014 1014 3014 1987 川崎重工
015F 3015 1015 2015 2016 1016 3016 1987 川崎重工
017F 3017 1017 2017 2018 1018 3018 1987 川崎重工
Train 137, 17th December 2011 MRT Disruption
019F 3019 1019 2019 2020 1020 3020 1987 川崎重工
021F 3021 1021 2021 2022 1022 3022 1987 近畿車輛
023F 3023 1023 2023 2024 1024 3024 1987 近畿車輛
025F 3025 1025 2025 2026 1026 3026 1987 近畿車輛
027F 3027 1027 2027 2028 1028 3028 1987 近畿車輛
029F 3029 1029 2029 2030 1030 3030 1987 近畿車輛
031F 3031 1031 2031 2032 1032 3032 1987 日本車輌
033F 3033 1033 2033 2034 1034 3034 1987 日本車輌
035F 3035 1035 2035 2036 1036 3036 1987 日本車輌
037F 3037 1037 2037 2038 1038 3038 1987 日本車輌
039F 3039 1039 2039 2040 1040 3040 1987 日本車輌
041F 3041 1041 2041 2042 1042 3042 1987 東急車輌
043F 3043 1043 2043 2044 1044 3044 1987 東急車輌
045F 3045 1045 2045 2046 1046 3046 1987 東急車輌
047F 3047 1047 2047 2048 1048 3048 1987 東急車輌
17th May 2010 Changi Depot Graffiti Incident
049F 3049 1049 2049 2050 1050 3050 1987 東急車輌
051F 3051 1051 2051 2052 1052 3052 1987 川崎重工
5th August 1993 Clementi Accident
053F 3053 1053 2053 2054 1054 3054 1987 川崎重工
055F 3055 1055 2055 2056 1056 3056 1987 川崎重工
Propulsion Change-out to Toshiba PMSM in 2015
057F 3057 1057 2057 2058 1058 3058 1987 川崎重工
059F 3059 1059 2059 2060 1060 3060 1988 川崎重工
061F 3061 1061 2061 2062 1062 3062 1988 川崎重工
063F 3063 1063 2063 2064 1064 3064 1988 近畿車輛
065F 3065 1065 2065 2066 1066 3066 1988 近畿車輛
Train 127/927, 17th December 2011 MRT Disruptions
067F 3067 1067 2067 2068 1068 3068 1988 近畿車輛
Train 139, 15th December 2011 MRT Disruptions
069F 3069 1069 2069 2070 1070 3070 1988 近畿車輛
071F 3071 1071 2071 2072 1072 3072 1988 近畿車輛
073F 3073 1073 2073 2074 1074 3074 1988 日本車輌
075F 3075 1075 2075 2076 1076 3076 1988 日本車輌
077F 3077 1077 2077 2078 1078 3078 1988 日本車輌
079F 3079 1079 2079 2080 1080 3080 1988 日本車輌
081F 3081 1081 2081 2082 1082 3082 1988 日本車輌
Train 133, 15th December 2011 MRT Disruptions
083F 3083 1083 2083 2084 1084 3084 1988 東急車輌
085F 3085 1085 2085 2086 1086 3086 1988 東急車輌
087F 3087 1087 2087 2088 1088 3088 1988 東急車輌
089F 3089 1089 2089 2090 1090 3090 1988 東急車輌
091F 3091 1091 2091 2092 1092 3092 1988 東急車輌
Train 123, 17th December 2011 MRT Disruptions
093F 3093 1093 2093 2094 1094 3094 1988 川崎重工
095F 3095 1095 2095 2096 1096 3096 1988 川崎重工
097F 3097 1097 2097 2098 1098 3098 1988 川崎重工
099F 3099 1099 2099 2100 1100 3100 1989 川崎重工
101F 3101 1101 2101 2102 1102 3102 1989 川崎重工
103F 3103 1103 2103 2104 1104 3104 1989 近畿車輛
105F 3105 1105 2105 2106 1106 3106 1989 近畿車輛
Train 133, 17th December 2011 MRT Disruptions
107F 3107 1107 2107 2108 1108 3108 1989 近畿車輛
109F 3109 1109 2109 2110 1110 3110 1989 近畿車輛
111F 3111 1111 2111 2112 1112 3112 1989 近畿車輛
Train 128, 15th December 2011 MRT Disruptions
113F 3113 1113 2113 2114 1114 3114 1989 日本車輌
115F 3115 1115 2115 2116 1116 3116 1989 日本車輌
117F 3117 1117 2117 2118 1118 3118 1989 日本車輌
119F 3119 1119 2119 2120 1120 3120 1989 日本車輌
121F 3121 1121 2121 2122 1122 3122 1989 日本車輌
5th August 1993 Clementi Accident
123F 3123 1123 2123 2124 1124 3124 1989 東急車輌
125F 3125 1125 2125 2126 1126 3126 1989 東急車輌
127F 3127 1127 2127 2128 1128 3128 1989 東急車輌
129F 3129 1129 2129 2130 1130 3130 1989 東急車輌
131F 3131 1131 2131 2132 1132 3132 1989 東急車輌
Propulsion Change-out to Toshiba PMSM in 2015
301F 3301 1301 N/A N/A N/A 1302 3302 1989 川崎重工
4-car ‘Money Train’, withdrawn from fleet early-2000s

Legend
CP – Air Compressor
AC – Air Conditioner (2 per car)
CHOP – Chopper Unit
SIV – Static Inverter
BT – Battery

Main Reference:
Mass Rapid Transit System : Proceedings of the Singapore Mass Rapid Transit Conference
ISBN 9971-84-636-5

Siemens “First Class Bogies ; The complete program for high-quality railway transportation”

Subject Supporting Reference (Rolling Stock):
電気鉄道概論; 改訂増補版 “a Survey of Electric Railway” (安藤 信三,日本語)
ISBN4-425-92502-5

鉄道ダイヤ回復の技術 (電気学会・鉄道における運行計画・運行管理業務高度化に関する調査専門委員会,日本語)
ISBN978-4-274-201914-7